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Liraglutide, a derivative of the naturally occurring peptide GLP-1, is well-known for its ability to lower blood sugar levels and enhance insulin secretion. Beyond its role in diabetes management, research suggests that Liraglutide, as a GLP-1 analogue, may have additional benefits for heart, liver, and lung function. Moreover, there are indications that it could potentially slow down or prevent the effects of Alzheimer’s disease.
One of the notable effects of Liraglutide is its significant impact on appetite reduction. This is achieved through delaying gastric emptying and decreasing intestinal motility, contributing to a decreased sense of hunger.
To enhance its therapeutic potential, Liraglutide has undergone modifications to extend its half-life and improve its pharmacokinetic profile, making it even more favorable for clinical use.
This PRODUCT IS INTENDED FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY. Its usage should be limited to in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation. This product is not intended for any other purposes, including but not limited to medical, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications. It must not be used on humans, animals, or any living organisms.
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Liraglutide and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Overview
GLP-1, or glucagon-like peptide-1, is a naturally occurring peptide hormone comprising only 30-31 amino acids. Its primary function is to lower blood sugar levels by enhancing insulin secretion in a natural manner. Beyond its role in blood sugar regulation, GLP-1 also contributes to protecting beta cell insulin stores by promoting insulin gene transcription and exhibits neurotrophic effects in the brain and central nervous system.
Moreover, in the gastrointestinal system, GLP-1 has been found to significantly reduce appetite by delaying gastric emptying and decreasing intestinal motility. Research has also indicated potential impacts of GLP-1 in various organs, such as the heart, fat, muscles, bones, liver, lungs, and kidneys.
The main focus of GLP-1 research lies in the realm of diabetes treatment and prevention, as well as appetite suppression. Additionally, there is growing interest in exploring the peptide’s potential cardiovascular benefits. Recently, researchers have been delving into the promising area of GLP-1’s ability to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
Particularly noteworthy is the emerging evidence that GLP-1 can slow or even prevent the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. As this field of study gains momentum, it opens up new avenues of investigation into the neuroprotective properties of GLP-1, offering hope for potential therapeutic interventions against neurodegenerative conditions.
Molecular Formula: C172H265N43O51
Molecular Weight: 3751.24 g/mol
PubChem CID: 16134956
CAS Number: 204656-20-2
Synonyms: Liraglutide, Victoza, Saxenda, Liraglutidea, NN2211, Liraglultidum
Liraglutide and GLP-1 Research
The Incretin Effect of GLP-1
Dr. Holst emphasizes that one of the most crucial effects of GLP-1 is known as the “incretin effect,” wherein metabolic hormones called incretins, released by the GI tract, lead to a decrease in blood glucose levels. In rodent models, GLP-1, alongside GIP, stands out as one of the two primary hormones responsible for stimulating this incretin effect. Despite GIP circulating at approximately 10 times higher levels than GLP-1, evidence suggests that GLP-1 is the more potent molecule, especially when blood glucose levels are significantly elevated.
Additionally, a GLP-1 receptor has been identified on the surface of pancreatic beta cells, establishing that GLP-1 directly triggers the exocytosis of insulin from the pancreas. When combined with sulfonylurea drugs, GLP-1 has shown the ability to boost insulin secretion significantly, resulting in mild hypoglycemia in up to 40% of subjects. This increased insulin secretion is associated with various beneficial effects, such as heightened protein synthesis, reduced protein breakdown, and increased uptake of amino acids by skeletal muscle.
Liraglutide GLP-1 and Beta Cell Protection
Studies conducted on animal models have revealed that GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1) can stimulate the growth and proliferation of pancreatic beta cells. Additionally, it has the potential to prompt the differentiation of new beta cells from progenitors in the pancreatic duct epithelium.
Notably, GLP-1 has been found to inhibit beta cell apoptosis, further promoting the growth and survival of these cells. Collectively, these effects shift the balance of beta cell growth and death in favor of growth, suggesting that this peptide could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes and in safeguarding the pancreas against insults that might harm beta cells.
A particularly compelling trial demonstrated that GLP-1 effectively prevented the death of beta cells caused by elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines. Remarkably, mouse models of type 1 diabetes have shown that GLP-1 can protect islet cells from destruction, indicating its potential as a means to prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes.
Liraglutide GLP-1 and Appetite
Research conducted on mice has yielded promising results regarding the effects of GLP-1 and its close relative GLP-1 on food intake. When these peptides were administered into the brains of mice, a reduction in the drive to eat and a decrease in food intake were observed. This suggests that GLP-1 may enhance the feeling of satiety, leading individuals to feel fuller and indirectly reducing hunger.
Recent clinical studies have further supported these findings in mice. When GLP-1 receptor agonists were administered twice daily to mice, a gradual and consistent weight loss occurred over an extended period. This weight loss was associated with significant improvements in cardiovascular risk factors and a reduction in hemoglobin A1C levels, which serves as a proxy marker for the severity of diabetes and the effectiveness of blood sugar control achieved through treatment. These positive outcomes indicate the potential benefits of GLP-1 in managing weight and improving metabolic health.
Potential Cardiovascular Benefits of GLP-1
It is now understood that GLP-1 receptors are present throughout the heart and can enhance cardiac function in specific situations by increasing heart rate and decreasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. While reducing the latter may not seem significant, it is crucial because elevated LV end-diastolic pressure is associated with conditions like LV hypertrophy, cardiac remodeling, and eventual heart failure.
Recent findings propose that GLP-1 might even have a role in minimizing the overall damage caused by a heart attack. The peptide seems to enhance glucose uptake in cardiac muscle, aiding ischemic heart cells in obtaining the necessary nutrition to sustain their function and avoid programmed cell death. Interestingly, this increase in glucose uptake appears to occur independently of insulin.
Studies involving large infusions of GLP-1 in dogs have demonstrated improved LV performance and reduced systemic vascular resistance. The latter effect can lead to a decrease in blood pressure, thereby alleviating strain on the heart. Consequently, this can have long-term benefits by mitigating the consequences of high blood pressure, including LV remodeling, vascular thickening, and heart failure. Dr. Holst has reported that administering GLP-1 after cardiac injury has consistently resulted in enhanced myocardial performance, both in experimental animal models and patients.
Size of damage in heart in control mice (A), mice given standard vasopressin therapy (B), and mice give GLP-1 (C).
Source: Diabetes Journal
Liraglutide GLP-1 and the Brain
Some evidence suggests that GLP-1 may have positive effects on learning and neuron protection against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In studies conducted on mice and rats, GLP-1 was found to enhance associative and spatial learning, improve learning deficits caused by specific gene defects, and promote better memory when overexpressing the GLP-1 receptor in certain brain regions.
Further research in mice demonstrated that GLP-1 can protect against excitotoxic neuron damage and prevent glutamate-induced apoptosis, potentially offering neuroprotective benefits. It also showed the ability to stimulate neurite outgrowth in cultured cells, raising hope that GLP-1 could be explored as a treatment to slow down or reverse neurodegenerative diseases.
In mouse models, both GLP-1 and its analogue exendin-4 were shown to reduce levels of amyloid-beta in the brain, along with the beta-amyloid precursor protein found in neurons. Amyloid-beta is a major component of the plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease, though its direct causative role is not fully understood. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that preventing amyloid-beta accumulation may offer potential therapeutic benefits in slowing the progression from mild cognitive impairment to full Alzheimer’s disease.
GLP-1 has demonstrated minimal to moderate side effects, with good subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. However, it is essential to note that dosage in mice does not directly scale to humans. Moreover, GLP-1 is available for purchase from Peptide Shop solely for educational and scientific research purposes and is not meant for human consumption. Only licensed researchers should acquire GLP-1.
About The Author
The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.
Scientific Journal Author
In 1986 Professor Jens Juul Holst discovered the GLP-1 hormone in connection with his work on stomach ulcer surgery. Since the discovery, Novo Nordisk have used the research to successfully develop products to treat diabetes and obesity. The hormone GLP-1 can be used to regulate blood sugar levels and satiety.
Not only has it made treatment of obesity and diabetes possible, it has also proven useful preventatively through early diagnosis for citizens who are at risk of developing diabetes and obesity. In 2015, Jens Juul Holst received the prestigious international Fernström prize for his research on GLP-1. He is one of the most cited researchers in Europe, with over 1,200 published articles and citations in over 3,500 articles annually.
Professor Jens Juul Holst is being referenced as one of the leading scientists involved in the research and development of GLP-1. In no way is this doctor/scientist endorsing or advocating the purchase, sale, or use of this product for any reason. There is no affiliation or relationship, implied or otherwise, between Peptide Shop and this doctor. The purpose of citing the doctor is to acknowledge, recognize, and credit the exhaustive research and development efforts conducted by the scientists studying this peptide. Professor Jens Juul Holst is listed in  under the referenced citations.
- “The Physiology of Glucagon-like Peptide 1 | Physiological Reviews.” [Online].
- “Combined treatment with lisofylline and exendin-4 reverses autoimmune diabetes. – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “The proglucagon-derived peptide, glucagon-like peptide-2, is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of food intake. – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “Interim analysis of the effects of exenatide treatment on A1C, weight and cardiovascular risk factors over 82 weeks in 314 overweight patients with… – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “Cardiac function in mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Can Directly Protect the Heart Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury | Diabetes.” [Online].
- “Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with pacing-ind… – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection. – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “Protection and reversal of excitotoxic neuronal damage by glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4. – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- “A new Alzheimer’s disease interventive strategy: GLP-1. – PubMed – NCBI.” [Online].
- Holst JJ. From the Incretin Concept and the Discovery of GLP-1 to Today’s Diabetes Therapy. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:260. Published 2019 Apr 26. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00260 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6497767/
ALL ARTICLES AND PRODUCT INFORMATION PROVIDED ON THIS WEBSITE ARE FOR INFORMATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY.
The products offered on this website are furnished for in-vitro studies only. In-vitro studies (Latin: in glass) are performed outside of the body. These products are not medicines or drugs and have not been approved by the FDA to prevent, treat or cure any medical condition, ailment or disease. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law.
|Dimensions||10 × 10 × 20 mm|