Thymosin Alpha-1 10mg


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Thymosin Alpha-1, a powerful substance first identified in 1972 and sourced from the thymus gland, serves as a natural regulator for our immune system. Over the years, scientists have been delving into its potential role in treating a range of health conditions. These include cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, infections caused by cytomegalovirus, respiratory issues, chronic hepatitis, and even cancer. The remarkable ability of this compound to modulate our immune response holds great promise for future therapeutic applications.



This PRODUCT IS INTENDED FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY. Its usage should be limited to in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation. This product is not intended for any other purposes, including but not limited to medical, therapeutic, or diagnostic applications. It must not be used on humans, animals, or any living organisms.

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What Is Thymosin Alpha 1?

Thymosin Alpha 1 is a peptide or small protein originally discovered in the thymus gland. It plays a key role in the immune system, particularly in developing T cells, which are crucial for the body’s defense against infections and diseases.

Thymosin Alpha 1 has been synthesized and used in various clinical settings due to its immunomodulatory properties. It has been shown to increase the activity of T cells, stimulate the production of antibodies, and enhance the function of natural killer cells. This makes it potentially useful in treating conditions that involve a weakened immune system, such as certain types of cancer, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Structure

thymosin structure

Source: PubChem

  • Sequence: Ser-Asp-Ala-Ala-Val-Asp-Thr-Ser-Ser-Glu-Ile-Thr-Thr-Lys-Asp-Leu-Lys-Glu-Lys-Lys-Glu-Val-Val-Glu-Glu-Ala-Glu-Asn
  • Molecular Formula: C129H215N33O55
  • Molecular Weight: 3108.315 g/mol
  • PubChem CID: 16130571
  • CAS Number: 62304-98-7
  • Synonyms: Thymalfasin

Thymosin Alpha-1 Research

Thymosin Alpha-1 Modulates the Immune System

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a potent peptide that plays a significant role in modulating the immune system. This connection lies in the peptide’s ability to stimulate and regulate various aspects of the immune response.

One of the primary ways Thymosin Alpha-1 achieves this is by enhancing the function of certain immune cells, particularly T cells and dendritic cells. These cells are crucial for the body’s defense against infections and diseases. T cells kill infected host cells and activate other immune cells, while dendritic cells help the immune system recognize foreign invaders.

In addition, Thymosin Alpha-1 can interact with toll-like receptors, proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. Thymosin Alpha-1 can trigger immune responses by binding to these receptors, helping the body effectively fight off pathogens.

Another important aspect of Thymosin Alpha-1’s immune-modulating action is its ability to down-regulate inflammation. While inflammation is a necessary part of the immune response, chronic inflammation can lead to various health problems. Thymosin Alpha-1 can help maintain a balanced immune response by reducing and modulating inflammation.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Promotes Nerve Growth

Thymosin Alpha-1 has been found to promote nerve growth as well. This connection between Thymosin Alpha-1 and nerve growth is thought to be due to its immunomodulatory effects.

Research indicates that neonatal immune activation with Thymosin Alpha-1 can encourage neural development. The immune system is intricately involved in the growth, development, and maintenance of the central nervous system. Thus, by enhancing the function of the immune system, Thymosin Alpha-1 may indirectly support nerve growth.

In addition, studies have reported that the administration of Thymosin Alpha-1 can enhance the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) level and its distribution. NGF is a protein crucial for the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain nerve cells.

Furthermore, research suggests that Thymosin Alpha-1 may accelerate wound healing by promoting the formation of new blood vessels and cell migration at the injury site. Since nerve repair and regeneration often occur alongside wound healing, this could contribute to its nerve growth-promoting effects.

thymosin chartA

. 4-week-old mice given thymosin alpha-1 learn how to escape from mazes faster.
Source: PubMed

Thymosin Alpha-1 Fights Fungus

One of the ways Thymosin Alpha-1 fights fungus is by activating dendritic cells. These cells are essential for initiating and shaping the immune response. By activating dendritic cells, Thymosin Alpha-1 can enhance the body’s resistance to fungi such as Aspergillus, a common cause of fungal infections.

In addition, research has shown that Thymosin Alpha-1 can effectively treat systemic Candida albicans infections when combined with fluconazole, an antifungal agent. This suggests that Thymosin Alpha-1 not only boosts the immune response but may also enhance the effectiveness of other antifungal treatments.

It also targets Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), stimulating the adaptive immune response essential for fighting fungal infections. This action allows the immune system to recognize and respond to specific pathogens, enhancing its ability to combat fungal infections.

Lastly, Thymosin Alpha-1 has been identified as an effective immunotherapy against fungal diseases. This is particularly significant because many fungal infections are notoriously difficult to treat, often due to the patient’s compromised immune system. By boosting immune function, Thymosin Alpha-1 provides a promising approach to these challenging conditions.

Thymosin Alpha-1 and Hepatitis

Thymosin Alpha-1 (Tα-1), a potent immunomodulatory peptide, has shown promising results in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C, according to various studies.

In chronic Hepatitis B (CHB), Tα-1 monotherapy has proven to be effective in minimizing massive replication compared to untreated control or conventional interferon. This is significant as controlling viral replication is key to stopping the progression of the disease.

A study published in BMC Gastroenterology indicated that combining Thymosin α1 and Entecavir positively affected patients with HBV liver. Entecavir is an antiviral medication used to treat hepatitis B infection in adults and children at least two years old.

Further research indicated that Thymosin alpha-1 therapy improved postoperative survival in patients with liver cancer and chronic hepatitis B. This suggests that Tα-1 may not only help combat the virus but also improve patient outcomes following surgery.

For the treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Thymosin alpha 1 has shown intrinsic activities that might improve treatment outcomes. However, another study suggests that Tα-1 as a monotherapy does not seem to be useful in treating hepatitis C infection, but it may show promise when used in combination therapy.

Thymosin Alpha-1 and HIV

Thymosin Alpha-1 (Tα1), an immunomodulatory peptide, has been studied for its potential role in treating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection.

One of the key challenges in treating HIV is the virus’s ability to suppress the immune system, particularly T-cells, which are crucial for fighting off infections. This is where Tα1 comes into play. It has been shown to increase Interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors in lymphocytes in vitro, which can help boost immune function.

A pilot study demonstrated that Tα1 was well-tolerated in a group of patients, aligning with other clinical trials of thymosin. This suggests that Tα1 could potentially be used as a safe and effective adjunct treatment for HIV.

Interestingly, it has been observed that thymosin α1 levels are elevated in individuals at risk for AIDS, unlike in other immunodeficient states where it is usually depressed. This could potentially indicate that Tα1 plays a role in the body’s response to HIV infection.

Furthermore, research indicates that Tα1, when combined with interferon-alpha 1 and zidovudine (commonly used in HIV treatment), has been well-tolerated in HIV patients. This combination therapy could potentially enhance the effectiveness of HIV treatment.

Another study showed that Tα1 potentiates the release of soluble factors in LPS-stimulated CD8+ cells, which can inhibit HIV-1 infection. This indicates that Tα1 may have a direct antiviral effect against HIV.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Research and Blood Pressure

A study published in the journal Food Chemistry explored the antioxidant property of Thymosin Alpha-1 and its angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. ACE is essential in the renal-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance. By inhibiting ACE, Tα1 could potentially help to lower blood pressure.

In the context of COVID-19 treatment, Thymosin Alpha-1 was used to treat patients. Still, its efficacy remains unclear, as one study pointed out that it was hard to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at certain levels. The MAP is an important measure of perfusion pressure in the body’s organs, and any alteration can have significant health implications.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Research and Cancer

Research has found that Thymosin Alpha-1 (Tα1) can slow down the growth and even cause self-destruction of breast cancer cells. It does this by activating PTEN, a protein that helps control cell growth. This activation blocks a pathway (known as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway) that cancer cells often use to multiply and survive. This suggests that Tα1 could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer.

In addition to breast cancer, Tα1 has also been found to inhibit the growth of various other cancers, including lung cancer, melanoma, gastric cancer, and leukemia.

Moreover, studies have indicated that a tumor-penetrating peptide modification could enhance the antitumor activity of Tα1. This suggests that modifying Tα1 could potentially increase its effectiveness in treating cancer.

Another interesting finding is that Tα1 has been shown to modulate immune responses, which could be beneficial in cancer therapy. For example, it could affect subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro. These cells play important roles in regulating immune responses, and modulating their activity could potentially improve the effectiveness of cancer treatments.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Research and Inflammatory Pain

Thymosin Alpha-1 (Tα1) has demonstrated potential in alleviating inflammatory pain based on several research studies.

A study published in the journal “Neuroscience Bulletin” found that Tα1 could inhibit pain and the production of microglia-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord, using a complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model1.

Another study from “NeuroReport” indicated that Tα1 can attenuate inflammatory pain by modulating the Wnt3a/β-catenin pathway in the spinal cord2. This pathway plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including inflammation.

In another study concerning severe acute pancreatitis in rats, Tα1 was found to decrease proinflammatory cytokines, which could help alleviate the associated inflammatory pain.

Additionally, a double-blind randomized control pilot study on the reimplantation of avulsed teeth suggested that Tα1 could provide short-term and long-term benefits, including potentially reducing pain and inflammatory markers.

Thymosin Alpha-1 and Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to progressive damage to the respiratory, digestive, and other systems of the body. It’s caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which produces a defective CFTR protein.

A study demonstrated that Tα1 displays multiple beneficial effects in CF by improving CFTR maturation, stability, and activity1. The findings suggest that Tα1 could potentially help manage CF by modulating the function of the CFTR protein.

Another research found that Tα1 exhibits multi-organ anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of CF2. These anti-inflammatory effects could be beneficial in managing the chronic inflammation that is often associated with CF.

Damaged Teeth and Thymosin Alpha-1

Studies investigating the advantages of thymosin alpha-1 for avulsed (pulled out) and replanted permanent front teeth demonstrate that the peptide can enhance the healing process of the gums and soft tissue around the injury while also promoting the survival of the replanted tooth[18]. Although further research is necessary, these findings suggest that thymosin alpha-1 holds significant potential in cases of traumatic tooth damage, potentially facilitating the rescue of knocked-out teeth and offering valuable support to dentists in such situations.

The Future of Thymosin Alpha-1

Thymosin Alpha-1 (Tα1) has been studied for its potential benefits in dental health, particularly in relation to tooth reimplantation.

In a double-blind randomized control pilot study on the reimplantation of avulsed teeth, Tα1 was found to provide short-term and long-term benefits, including potentially reducing pain and inflammatory markers. The study suggested that Tα1 might improve outcomes for avulsed teeth reimplantation, a dental emergency where a tooth is knocked out of its socket due to trauma.

Avulsed teeth have a poor prognosis because the periodontal ligament cells that attach the tooth to the bone are usually damaged or destroyed during avulsion. Preserving and revitalizing these cells is critical for successful reimplantation. The study showed that Tα1 might help reduce inflammation and pain after reimplantation, which could improve the prognosis.

Please note that all the articles and product information provided on this website are intended for informational and educational purposes only.

The products offered on this platform are specifically designed for in-vitro studies, meaning they are conducted outside the body. It is important to clarify that these products are not medicines or drugs, and the FDA has not approved them for the prevention, treatment, or cure of any medical condition, ailment, or disease.

Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.

Scientific Journal Author

Allan L. Goldstein, MD, holds the distinguished position of Professor and Catharine B. & William McCormick Chair in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, where he has been serving since 1978. His involvement with thymosins dates back to the mid-1960s when he worked with the Laboratory of Abraham White at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, exploring the role of the thymus in vertebrate immune system development. Dr. Goldstein is an esteemed authority in the field of thymus gland research and immune system functionality, and he is one of the co-discoverers of thymosins.

Throughout his illustrious career, Dr. Goldstein has authored over 400 scientific articles in esteemed professional journals, holds more than 15 U.S. patents as an inventor, and has edited several books focusing on biochemistry, biomedicine, immunology, and neuroscience. His contributions to scientific literature have earned him positions on the editorial boards of numerous scientific and medical journals. He has also provided consultation to various research organizations in both industry and government.

Beyond his academic work, Dr. Goldstein has made notable contributions in the establishment of The Institute for Advanced Studies in Aging and Geriatric Medicine, a non-profit research and educational institute. He serves as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Albert Sabin Vaccine Institute and holds the position of Chairman of the Board of RegeneRx Biopharmaceuticals.

Dr. Goldstein earned his B.S. degree from Wagner College in 1959 and completed his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees at Rutgers University in 1964. He was a faculty member at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 1964 to 1972 and subsequently joined the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston in 1972 as a Professor and Director of the Division of Biochemistry.

It is important to clarify that Allan L. Goldstein, MD, is recognized as one of the leading scientists involved in the research and development of Thymosin Alpha 1 and other Thymosins. However, there is no endorsement or advocacy by this doctor/scientist for the purchase, sale, or use of this product for any purpose. There is no affiliation or relationship, implied or otherwise, between Peptide Shop and Dr. Goldstein. The reference to Dr. Goldstein serves solely to acknowledge, recognize, and credit the extensive research and development efforts conducted by scientists studying this peptide. Dr. Goldstein’s contributions can be found in the referenced citations [7].

Referenced Citations

  1. R. King and C. Tuthill, “Immune Modulation with Thymosin Alpha 1 Treatment,” Vitam. Horm., vol. 102, pp. 151–178, 2016.
  2. C. Zhang, J. Zhou, K. Cai, W. Zhang, C. Liao, and C. Wang, “Gene cloning, expression and immune adjuvant properties of the recombinant fusion peptide Tα1-BLP on avian influenza inactivate virus vaccine,” Microb. Pathog., vol. 120, pp. 147–154, Jul. 2018.
  3. F. Pei, X. Guan, and J. Wu, “Thymosin alpha 1 treatment for patients with sepsis,” Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., vol. 18, no. sup1, pp. 71–76, 2018.
  4. G. Wang et al., “Immunopotentiator Thymosin Alpha-1 Promotes Neurogenesis and Cognition in the Developing Mouse via a Systemic Th1 Bias,” Neurosci. Bull., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 675–684, Dec. 2017.
  5. L. Romani et al., “Thymosin α 1 activates dendritic cells for antifungal Th1 resistance through Toll-like receptor signaling,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 4232–4239, Jun. 2004.
  6. L. Romani et al., “Thymosin alpha1: an endogenous regulator of inflammation, immunity, and tolerance,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 1112, pp. 326–338, Sep. 2007.
  7. A. L. Goldstein and A. L. Goldstein, “From lab to bedside: emerging clinical applications of thymosin alpha 1,” Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 593–608, May 2009.
  8. C. Matteucci et al., “Thymosin alpha 1 and HIV-1: recent advances and future perspectives,” Future Microbiol., vol. 12, pp. 141–155, 2017.
  9. C. Matteucci et al., “Thymosin α 1 potentiates the release by CD8(+) cells of soluble factors able to inhibit HIV-1 and human T lymphotropic virus 1 infection in vitro,” Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., vol. 15 Suppl 1, pp. S83-100, 2015.
  10. J. Kharazmi-Khorassani, A. Asoodeh, and H. Tanzadehpanah, “Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of thymosin alpha-1 (Thα1) peptide,” Bioorganic Chem., vol. 87, pp. 743–752, Jun. 2019.
  11. J. Kharazmi-Khorassani and A. Asoodeh, “Thymosin alpha-1; a natural peptide inhibits cellular proliferation, cell migration, the level of reactive oxygen species and promotes the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (A549),” Environ. Toxicol., May 2019.
  12. M. Maio et al., “Large randomized study of thymosin alpha 1, interferon alfa, or both in combination with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. Off. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol., vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1780–1787, Apr. 2010.
  13. R. Danielli, E. Fonsatti, L. Calabrò, A. M. Di Giacomo, and M. Maio, “Thymosin α1 in melanoma: from the clinical trial setting to the daily practice and beyond,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 1270, pp. 8–12, Oct. 2012.
  14. X. Shen et al., “Generation of a novel long-acting thymosin alpha1-Fc fusion protein and its efficacy for the inhibition of breast cancer in vivo,” Biomed. Pharmacother. Biomedecine Pharmacother., vol. 108, pp. 610–617, Dec. 2018.
  15. F. Wang, T. Yu, H. Zheng, and X. Lao, “Thymosin Alpha1-Fc Modulates the Immune System and Down-regulates the Progression of Melanoma and Breast Cancer with a Prolonged Half-life,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, p. 12351, Aug. 2018.
  16. Y. Xu et al., “Thymosin Alpha-1 Inhibits Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Pain and Production of Microglia-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Spinal Cord,” Neurosci. Bull., Feb. 2019.
  17. L. Romani et al., “Thymosin α1 represents a potential potent single-molecule-based therapy for cystic fibrosis,” Nat. Med., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 590–600, May 2017.
  18. P. F. Day, M. Duggal, and H. Nazzal, “Interventions for treating traumatised permanent front teeth: avulsed (knocked out) and replanted,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., vol. 2, p. CD006542, 05 2019.
  19. M. Schmidt et al., “Design of a substrate-tailored peptiligase variant for the efficient synthesis of thymosin-α1,” Org. Biomol. Chem., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 609–618, 24 2018.


The products offered on this website are furnished for in-vitro studies only. In-vitro studies (Latin: in glass) are performed outside of the body.  These products are not medicines or drugs and have not been approved by the FDA to prevent, treat or cure any medical condition, ailment or disease.  Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law.

Additional info

Weight4 g
Dimensions10 × 10 × 20 mm

5mg, 10mg

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